Bio composting an important component in organic farming

Bio composting an important component in organic farming

 

 

Dr. Hannah Krujia
SMS Agronomy
KVK Phek

 

The term bio-compost means plant matter that has been decomposed and recycled as a fertilizer or manure. Bio-compost is considered as a key ingredient in organic farming. It is very rich in nutrients. The process bio-composting is done by simply piling up wastes in the field or any outdoor place and then leave it undisturbed for a year or more. Bio-compost in the ecosystems is very useful for control of soil erosion, wetland construction, and as landfill cover. Modern day bio-composting process has many steps like monitoring of the composting. It is usually done by shredding the plant matter, adding of sufficient water to maintain the proper moisture level and then regularly turning the mixture to provide better aeration. Addition of worms and fungi helps in the process of decomposition. They break up the complex compounds into simpler ones and during the process lots of heat, carbon dioxide and ammonium is produced. This ammonium is again utilized by the microbes which are made available to the plants as nitrites and nitrates.

 

 

 

Benefits of bio compost:

 

Soil:

  • Improves its physical structure
  • Enriches soil with micro-organisms
  • Microbial activity in worm castings is 10 to 20 times higher than in the soil and organic matter that the worm ingests
  • Attracts deep-burrowing earthworms already present in the soil
  • Improves water holding capacity

 

Plant Growth:

  • Enhances germination, plant growth and crop yield
  • Improves root growth and structure
  • Enriches soil with micro-organisms

 

Economic:

  • Biowastes conversion reduces waste flow to landfills
  • Elimination of bio-wastes from the waste stream reduces contamination of other recyclables collected in a single bin
  • Creates low-skill jobs at rural level
  • Low capital investment and relatively simple technologies make vermicomposting practical for less-developed agricultural regions

 

Environmental:

  • Helps to close the “metabolic gap” through recycling waste on-site
  • Large systems often use temperature control and mechanized harvesting, however other equipment is relatively simple and does not wear out quickly
  • Production reduces greenhouse gas emissions such as methane and nitric oxide

 

 

Uses of bio compost:

  1. Compost is generally recommended as an additive to soil, or other matrices such as coir and peat, as a tilth improver, supplying humus and nutrients.
  2. It provides a rich growing medium, or a porous, absorbent material that holds moisture and soluble minerals, providing the support and nutrients in which plants can flourish, although it is rarely used alone, being primarily mixed with soil, sand, grit, bark chips, vermiculite, and clay granules to produce loam.
  3. Compost can be tilled directly into the soil or growing medium to boost the level of organic matter and the overall fertility of the soil. Compost that is ready to be used as an additive is dark brown or even black with an earthy smell.
  4. Composting can destroy pathogens or unwanted seeds. Unwanted living plants (or weeds) can be discouraged by covering with mulch/compost.

 

Thus, bio-composting is an easy and simple process for the decomposition of organic wastes which in turn can be used as manure or fertilizer. The process is also very cost effective.

 

 

 



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