With fertile foothills valley as well as mountainous terrain, Peren District is located between longitude 93°E – 94°E and latitude 25° N-26°N of the Equator at altitudes ranging from 800- 2500 metres above the sea level. It borders Manipur in the East and South, Assam in the West, Dimapur District in the North and Kohima District in the North-East.
Peren Town, the district Headquarter is located at 1445.40 metres above sea level, is 75 kms from Dimapur, the commercial hub of Nagaland and about 139 kms from the state capital Kohima. Climatically, in hilly areas, summers are moderately warm and winter is cold but in the valley, summer is hot and winter moderately cold.
History and people:
Till 2001 Census, Peren District was a sub-division of Kohima district. The district was craved by a Government of Nagaland, Home Department Notification dated October 24, 2003 by carving out 6 circles out of Kohima District namely Pedi (Ngwalwa), Jalukie, Athibung, Nsong, Tening and Peren.
The population of Peren District is entirely tribal with the Zeliangs and the Kukis as the dominant indigenous inhabitants. Considerable numbers of Rongmeis from Kohima and Dimapur districts have also migrated to the district, according to the ‘District Human Development Report – Peren (DHRP, 2013). The major dialects and languages spoken in the district are Zeme, Liangmai, Kuki, Rongmei, Nagamese and English.
Peren district had experienced the turbulent political movement during Pre-Independence to Post-Independence period and the people of the district were closely associated with the freedom movement led by the Late Rani Gaidinliu as well as with the Naga political struggle.
Before the advent of Christianity, the Zeliangs and the Kukis followed animism with belief in the ‘invisible being’ as the creator of the universe. Today, majority of the inhabitants of Peren district profess Christianity, though there are some who still follow the indigenous religion called ‘Bungtak’. A significant number of followers of the Late Rani Gaidinliu who practice the ‘heraka’ religion also exist as per the DHDRP.
The most colourful festival of Zeliangs is “Hega” and “Chega Gadi”. The Hega festival is one of the most important and the largest festival among the Zeliang community. It falls in the month of February from 10th to 15th every year. It is a festival invoking the Almighty God to shower his blessing upon his people with richness, luck and courage and celebrated with of joy, rest and togetherness. The genesis of Chega Gadi marks the people’s belief that on this day the Almighty showers his blessing and brings good harvest and health. However, the date for celebration often differs between communities and villages by fixing the dates according to their convenience. The Liangmai community celebrates this festival usually in the last part of the Chegahiu i.e. October.
Other festivals of Zelaings include Meleinyi, Herasam, Kwakpwa and Langsemnyi.
Mimkuut (Mim Kut) is the harvest festival of the Kukis celebrated on the 17th Kuki month of Tolbol (January) every year. The celebration lasts one week. Besides Mimkuut, Kukis celebrate Chapphou Kuut and Chavang Kuut as well as other smaller festivals.
Essentially a wrap-up of the year-long toils of the land, Mimkuut is marked by feasting where the youths engage themselves in various types of merrymaking and fetching of water and firewood. Traditional sports like wrestling and other games and different kinds of entertainment continue throughout the day and night.
According to 2011 Census, the total population of Peren District was 95,219 comprising of 49,714 males and 45,505 females. Comparatively, the state occupies 9th place in terms and 4th Place in terms of area at 1,651 sq. km. At 55 persons per sq. km, Peren has least density of population in the State.
The populations were considered predominantly rural residents with 81,429 while 13,790 were considered as urban residents. The overall sex ratio is 915 female per 1000 male while the child sex ratio (0-6) is 935.
The literacy rate of Peren was 77.9 percent, with male literacy at 82.8 percent and female literacy at 72.6 percent.
The district headquarter, namely, Peren is situated in Peren town under Peren Sadar administrative Circle. During 2011 Census, the district had 112 villages out of which 102 were inhabited while 10 villages, uninhabited. The village having highest population was Samziuram Village with 3909 persons. The District has two statutory towns – Peren Town and Jalukie Town.
Flora and Fauna:
Considered, the ‘Green district of Nagaland’ – Peren has abundant variety of wild flora and fauna making it a biodiversity hotspot including rare and indigenous only to the district.
According to DHDRP, vegetation covers of the district is 73.68 percent, with effective forest cover of 38 percent dominated by numerous types of trees, bamboo, and cane and broom grass of different species. The district is abundant in different species of flora besides a variety of medicinal plants and rare orchids. Species of trees and varieties of medicinal plants, orchids and Rhododendron are found in these forests.
The district is also known to support various forms of wildlife. Prominent among them are mithun, Asiatic Black Bear, Porcupine, sambar, Leopard, Field mouse, wood Rat, Jungle Cat , Pangolin, sloth Bear, Indian Civet, Common Langur, Red Billed squirrel, himalayan Giant squirrel, slow Loris, Jackal, wild Boar, Common Otter and Hoolock gibbon.
Various avian population found in the district include the majestic Great Pied hornbill, the migratory Amur Falcon, Blue Throated Barbet, Indian Eagle Owl, spotted Dove, herons, Green Pigeon and the Rufous wood Pecker.
Mt. Paona under Benreu village – the highest mountain peak in the District at 2500 metres above sea level, is known for rare and elusive Blythe’s Tragopan. Ntanki National Park is also home to Hollock Gibbon, a rare and an endangered species of monkey.
The principle rivers and important rivulets that flows through Peren District includes Tepuiki, Mbeiki (Barak), Ntanki, Mungleu, Tesanki, Nguiki, Nkwareu, Techauki, Ngungreu,Tahaiki and Duilumreu (Tributary of Tepuiki).
The district is looked after by a Deputy Commissioner under whom there are 7 administrative circles each headed by either an Additional Deputy Commissioner/ Sub-Divisional Officer (Civil) or an Extra Assistant Commissioner.
The administrative circles are: Pedi (Ngwalwa), Jalukie, Ahthibung, Kebai Khelma, Nsong, Tening and Peren.
The district has three Rural Development Blocks or RD Block – Jalukie, Tening and Peren.
Peren District Executive Force (DEF)
According to Nagaland Police Directory, Peren Sub-Division which formed a part of Dimapur District was upgraded to the level of Police District in 1993. Since then the Peren Police District is functioning as independent unit. Beginning with a sanctioned strength of 66 (sixty six) personnel including the Addl. S.P. in 1984, the posted strength had been increased to 107 and by 2000 to 160.
The DEF Peren consists of Superintendent of Police, Peren; Additional SP; and SDPO (Peren).
The district has five police stations namely Peren PS, Jalukie PS, Khelma PS, Tening PS and Athibung PS.
The district also serves as the Battalion Headquarters of 9th NAP (IR) Battalion in Saijang sanctioned by the Ministry of Home Affairs, 1998 and later by Nagaland Government in 1999. The battalion was raised on March 1, 1999 at Chumukedima, under the command of L Bendang Lemtur, NPS and the First Batch Recruits passed out their basic training on December 9, 1999.
Did you know?
- Neichülieü Nikki Haralu, the first Naga Ambassador of India and first Naga woman Indian Foreign Service Officer hails from Poilwa village, in Peren district. She was Ambassador to Panama, Nicaragua and Costa Rica.
- A rare species of bamboo – finger size and cane – like in structure – and believe to be the World’s tallest/longest bamboo is found in the in the foothills of Peletkie village along the margins of Tepuiki river and in the ranges of Tesen.