E. Lireni Kikon
SMS, Plant Protection
Prog. Asst KVK, Dimapur
Monitoring: Installation of pheromone traps @ 5/acre in the current and potential area of spread in crop season and off-season.
Scouting: Start scouting as soon as maize seedlings emerge
- At seedling to early whorl stage (3-4 weeks after emergence). Action can be taken if 5% plants are damaged.
- At mid whorl to late whorl stage (5-7 weeks after emergence). Action can be taken if 10% whorls are freshly damaged in mid whorl stage and 20% whorl damage in late whorl stage.
- At tasseling and post tasseling stage (silking stage). Do not spray insecticide (no insecticide application) but if 10% ear damage is observed action is required.
- Deep ploughing is recommended before sowing. This will expose FAW pupae to predators.
- Timely sowing is advised. Avoid staggered sowings.
- Intercropping of maize with suitable pulse crop (eg. Maize + pigeon pea/black gram/green gram).
- Erection of bird perches @ 10/acre during early stage of the crop (up to 30 days).
- Sowing of 3- 4 rows of trap crops (eg. Napier) around maize field and spray with 5% NSKE or azadirachtin 1500 ppm as soon as the trap crop shows symptom of FAW damage.
- Clean cultivation and balanced use of fertilizers.
- Cultivation of maize hybrids with tight husk cover will reduce ear damage by FAW.
- Application of Sand + lime in 9:1 ratio in whorls in first thirty days of sowing.
- Hand picking and destruction of egg masses and neonate larvae in mass by crushing or immersing in kerosene water.
- Application of dry sand in to the whorl of affected maize plants soon after observation of FAW incidence in the field.
- Mass trapping of male moths using pheromone traps @ 15/acre.
- In situ protection of natural enemies by habitat management – Increase the plant diversity by intercropping with pulses and ornamental flowering plants which helps in build-up of natural enemies.
- Augmentative release of Trichogramma pretiosum or Telenomus remus @ 50,000 per acre at weekly intervals or based on trap catch of 3 moths/trap.
- Biopesticides – Suitable at 5% damage in seedling to early whorl stage and 10% ear damage with entomopathogenic fungi and bacteria
- Entomo pathogenic fungal formulations – Application of Metarhizium anisopliae talc formulation (1 x 108cfu/g) @ 5g/lit whorl application at 15-25 days after sowing. Another 1-2 sprays may also be given at an interval of 10 days depending on pest damage or Metrhizium rileyi rice grain formulation (1 x 108cfu/g) @3g/litre whorl application at 15-25 days after sowing. Another 1-2 sprays may also be given at an interval of 10 days depending on pest damage.
- Bacillus thuringiensis v. Kurstaki formulation @ 2g/litre or 400g/acre.
- Seed treatment: Cyantraniliprole 19.8% + Thiomethoxam 19.8% @ 4 ml per kg seed reported to offer protection up to 2-3 weeks after germination.
- First window (seedling to early whorl stage): To control FAW larvae at 5% damage to reduce hatchability of freshly laid eggs; spray 5% NSKE/Azadirachtin 1500ppm @ 5ml/litre of water.
- Second window (mid whorl to late whorl stage): To manage 2nd and 3rd instars larvae at 10-20% damage spray Emamectin benzoate @ 0.4g/litre of water or Spinosad @ 0.3 ml/litre of water or Thiamethaoxam 12.6% + lambdacyhalothrin 9.5% @ 0.5 ml/litre of water or Chlorantraniliprole 18.5% SC @ 0.3 ml/litre of water.
Poison baiting: Poison baiting is recommended for late instar larvae of second window. Keep the mixture of 10 kg rice bran + 2kg jaggery with 2-3 litres of water for 24 hours to ferment. Add 100g Thiodicarb just half an hour before application in the field. The bait should be applied into the whorl of the plants.
- Third Window (8 weeks after emergence to tasseling and post tasseling): Insecticide management is not cost effective at this stage. Hand picking of the larvae is advisable.
# All the sprays should be directed towards the whorl and either in the early hours of the day or in the evening#