Since last year, The Morung Leaning has been running a series ‘Know Your Districts’ highlighting basic information about each district in Nagaland. As the conclusion of the series, broad overviews of the eleven districts are highlighted in a three-part article. After Dimapur, Longleng and Kiphire in Part –I, Kohima, Mon and Wokha are covered in Part -II
Nestled in the south of Nagaland, Kohima is located at 25º40’N 94º07’E 25.67ºN 94.12ºE at an average elevation of 1261 metres (4137 feet) above sea level. Kohima was the first seat of modern administration as the headquarters of the erstwhile Naga Hills district that was initially under the British and naturally become the capital of Nagaland in 1963 when the State was formed. Kohima has the advantage of being centrally located – having boundaries with Dimapur district on the west, Wokha district on the north, Peren district on southwest, Zunheboto and Phek districts on the east and the State of Manipur to the south. The District Headquarters, Kohima (1,444.12 metres) town is located on top of a high ridge and winds all along the top of surrounding mountain ranges (KSHDR, 2009).
While the British India administration first established a post at Samaguting (Chumukedima) in 1866, and Wokha was occupied as the district Headquarter of Naga Hills in 1876, it was later shifted to Kohima in 1878 and remained so thereafter (Census of India, 2011). After Statehood, Kohima district has been divided thrice – in 1973 to create Phek district, in 1998 to create Dimapur district and in 2003 to create Peren district. The Pughoboto area was also transferred to Zunheboto district in 1989.
According to Census 2011 document, the name, Kohima, was officially given by the British as they could not pronounce the Angami name Kewhima or Kewhira (Tenyidie for “the land where the flower Kewhi grows”). It is called after the wild flowering plant Kewhi, found in the mountains. Earlier, Kohima was also known as Thigoma. Another version quoted in Kohima State Human Development Report (KDHDR, 2009) informed that Kohima was adopted by the British from ‘Kewhimia’ which means the ‘people of Whio’. The first version is also given in Kohima District Administration Website. The Angamis and Rengmas are the indigenous inhabitants of Kohima district and form the dominant tribes of the district.
Vital Statistics: Till 2001 Census Kohima district had an area of 3114 sq.kms with 12 administrative circles. Later, in 2003, Peren district was carved out of Kohima by transfering of 6 administrative circles. During 2011 Census, Kohima district had an area of 1463 sq. km. representing 8.82% or seventh place among the eleven districts of the state in terms of area.
As of 2011 Census, with 267,988 people, Kohima was the second most populated district in Nagaland, behind Dimapur. With an average literacy rate of 85.23%, it was placed 4th among the 11 districts of Nagaland. The district has 105 villages in 2011 Census which were all inhabited. The village with highest population was Tesophenyu, under Tseminyu Circle with a population of 11116 persons. Village having lowest population was Tsogin Hq under Tseminyu Circle with 31 persons.
Administration:The district is looked after by a Deputy Commissioner under whom there are 8 administrative circles each headed by either an Additional Deputy Commissioner/Sub-Divisional Officer (Civil) or an Extra Assistant Commissioner. The district headquarter of Kohima is situated in Kohima town under Kohima Sadar administrative Circle.
Administrative Headquarters/Circles (9): DC Kohima; ADC Tseminyu; ADC Chiephobozou; SDO (C) Jakhama; SDO (C) Sechu; EAC Hq. Kezocha; EAC Hq. Botsa; and EAC Hq. Chogizun.
RD Blocks (7): Kohima, Chiephobozou, Jakhama ,Tseminyu, Sechu-Zubza; Botsa and Chunlikha.
Statutory Towns (2): Kohima Town and Tseminyu Town. Kohima Village is a census town.
District Executive Force (DEF): According to Nagaland Police Directory, the detail history of SP Kohima establishment are not traceable. However, the first police post was establishment at Kohima during First World War to assist district administration during war-time. The temporary post was continued even after the war. In 1933, the first Police Station was establishment at Kohima at the present North PS. Police officers in rank of Dy. S.P. were reported to have been posted to Kohima for proper administration but there is no proper record. In the year December 28, 1953 with the establishment of SP office, Kumar Randip Singh, IPS was posted as the first SP Kohima of Naga Hills. Presently, DEF Kohima Officers are Superintendent of Police, Kohima; Additional SP; SDPO (Kohima); Dy.SP (Establisment), Dy.SP (Reserve) & Dy.SP (Traffic)
Police Stations (8): Kohima North PS; Kohima South PS; Khuzama P S; Tseminyu PS; Chiephobozou PS; Sechu (Zubza) PS; Kezocha PS; and Women PS.
Police Outposts (4): Chandmari; Science College; Zubza; and Para-medical.
With an area of 2,536 sq kilometers or 15.3% of the total area of the state, Tuensang is the biggest district in Nagaland. Situated in the easternmost part of Nagaland, Tuensang shares its boundaries with Myanmar in the east, Mon and Longleng to the North, Mokokchung and Zunheboto to the West, and Kiphire to the South.
The areas under Tuensang district were part of the ‘North Eastern Frontier Agency” (NEFA) as part of the Tuensang area which remained untouched by the British colonial administration even after its neighbouring areas were subjugated during the 1920s. The name of the district Tuensang originated from the name of the district headquarters, namely, Tuensang, now an urban area and the administrative centre of the District. The town also follows the name of a village which is situated close by.
Till 1971 Census, Tuensang district included the present Mon, Longleng and Kiphire district as a whole. In 1973 Mon district was carved out of Tuensang while new districts namely, Longleng and Kiphire were carved out with an area of 562 sq.km and 1130 sq.km respectively after 2001 census.
There are officially four recognized tribes: Chang, Khiamniungan, Sangtam and Yimchungru and a sub-tribe Tikhir under the nomenclature of Yimchungru inhabit the district of Tuensang.
Vital Statistics: At 1,96,596 persons, Tuensang was the 4th most populated district in Nagaland according to 2011 Census with a sex ratio of 929 (Number of female per 1000 males). However, in terms of density of population, it was at 9th Place (78 persons per sq. km) by virtue of being the biggest district in Nagaland in terms of area at 2,536 sq. km).
The District had a literacy rate of 73.1%. There were 144 villages with Tuensang Village as the most populated village at 8,974 persons. Kihoto Theological College Campus with 12 persons had the lowest.
Administration: The district is looked after by a Deputy Commissioner under whom there are 16 administrative revenue circles each headed by either an Addl. Deputy Commissioner/ Sub-Divisional Officer (Civil) or an Extra Assistant Commissioner as follows:
Administrative Circles (13): DC Office, Tuensang; Shamatore ADC ;Noklak ADC; Longkhim ADC; Noksen SDO; Thonoknyu SDO; Panso EAC ; Nokhu EAC; Chingmei EAC; Ngoungchung EAC ; Mangko EAC; Chessore EAC, Tsurangto EAC; Sangsangnyu;) Sotokhur EAC ; and Chare EAC Headquarter.
District Executive Force (DEF): The DEF Tuensang is headed by Superintendent of Police, Tuensang. The SP is assisted by Additional S. P.; SDPO (Tuensang) and Dy.SP (Reserve).
Police Stations (9): Tuensang PS, Noklak PS, Longkhim PS, Shamatore PS, Noksen PS, Chessore PS, Sangsanyu PS, Panso PS, and Thonokyu PS. The lone police outpost is Chare Police Outpost.
Location: Covering an area of 1,628 sq. km, Wokha is located in the mid western part of Nagaland at 26.8° N Latitude and 94.18° E Longitude. It is bounded by Assam in the West and North, Kohima and Dimapur district in the South, Zunheboto in the East and Mokokchung in the North-East. In terms of area, it represents 9.82 per cent of the total area of the state of Nagaland (16,579 sq.km) and occupies the 5th place among the eleven districts of the state.
Wokha is amalgamation of two words in Lotha language, ‘Wo or Owe’ meaning ‘number of people’ and ‘Kha’ meaning ‘Counting.’ Thus, Wokha literally means ‘head count’ or ‘census.’ The district is dominantly inhabited by Lothas (also referred to as Kyong Nagas), who are the indigenous inhabitants of the district.
During the colonial British administration, Wokha was designated as the District Headquarter of Naga Hill under Assam in 1876 but it was shifted to Kohima and it became as Sub – Division. Later, the Sub – Division was shifted to Mokokchung and again became a sub-division in the year 1957, when Mokokchung became a District. In December 1973, Wokha was raised to the status of a separate District.
Vital Statistics: According to the official Census 2011 data, Wokha district had a population of 166,343, with 84,505 males and 81,838 female and constituting 8.41 of the State population. This translates density of population (person per kilometer) at 102. The district has sex ratio (female population per 1000 males) at 968.
The overall literacy rate of the district was at 87.69% with 90.81% for male and 84.48 % for female is the second highest in the state.
Administration: The district is administered by a Deputy Commissioner under whom there are administrative circles each headed by either an Additional Deputy Commissioner (ADC), Sub-Divisional Officer(Civil) or Extra Assistant Commissioner.
Administrative Circles: Changpang, Aitepyong, Bhandari, Baghty, Sungro, Sanis, Lotsu, Ralan, Wozhuro, Wokha Sadar, Chukitong and Englan.
RD Blocks: Bhandari, Sanis, Lotsu, Ralan, Wokha Sadar and Chukitong.
The district has 153 villages in census 2011 out of which 151 villages were inhabited and 2 uninhabited. Wokha is the only statutory town of the district..
District Executive Force (DEF): According to Nagaland Police Directory, while the District of Wokha was created in the year 1973, post of Superintendent of Police was created only in the year 1981 with upgradation of the post of SDPO Wokha to that of the post of Superintendent of Police. Presently, the DEF WOKHA OFFICERS consists of * Superintendent of Police, Wokha; Additional S. P.; SDPO (Wokha); & SDPO (Bhandari).
Police Stations (6): Wokha PS; Bhandari PS; Sungro PS; Ralan PS; Champang PS; and Sanis PS.
Police Outpost (2): Doyang Police Outpost and Baghty Police Outpost.
(To be continued…)