LK Baishya, DJ Rajkhowa, Ph. Romen Sharma, H Verma, J Barman, Manoj Kumar and Sanjoy Roy
ICAR RC for NEH Region, Nagaland Centre, Medziphema
1.1 Name of the technology: Enhancing production and productivity of Maize and groundnut for livelihood improvement and promotion of livestock farming among tribal farmers in Nagaland.
1.2 Background information: Maize is an important cereal crop next to rice in Nagaland. Of late, increase emphasis is need to be put for cultivation of this crop not only for securing food and nutritional security but also for promoting livestock farming. As the state is deficient in meat production to the tune of 80%, large scale farming of pigs and poultry are inevitable. Continuous efforts have been put for introduction of improved breeds of pigs and poultry in the state both by ICAR, Nagaland centre as well as state department of veterinary and animal husbandry to reduce the demand supply gap. One of the major limitations for scientific livestock farming, more particularly pigs and poultry is the lack of availability of quality feeds. The increase in area, production and productivity of maize is therefore, is of utmost importance not only to promote livestock farming but also development of entrepreneurship among the educated youths of the state. Introduction of improved varieties including QPM, appropriate production technology are key for enhancing the productivity and profitability of maize cultivation. As such, in the present proposal, effort has been put to demonstrate the improved technology of maize cultivation in a participatory mode. The tremendous scope for enhancing the productivity of maize is yet to be realized which warrants large scale popularization of this crop through extensive demonstration on scientific cultivation. Similarly, there is tremendous scope for introduction of groundnut crop either as sole or as intercrop which will not only help in increasing resource use efficiency but also help in improving soil health and reduce soil erosion.
1.3 Technology Description: The project was implemented covering an area of 50 ha (approx..) in three hill districts of Nagaland, Longleng (10ha), Wokha (10 ha) and Peren (30ha) where the majority of the farmers relied on agricultural and livestock farming and they have not yet been exposed to improved agricultural technologies like, crop production, natural resource management and livestock farming and other secondary agriculture. Mass awareness and capacity building among rural youths and farm women on scientific cultivation of maize, groundnut was done on 23rd February at Wokha, 1st March at Jalukie, Peren, and 8th March, 2017 at Longleng districts of Nagaland. Jalukie town, Peren on 16th March, 2017. Which was followed by providing critical inputs improved varieties of maize seed (HQPM-1, All rounder, RCM-75 & RCM-76) and groundnut (ICGS-76), lime, organic manures, bio-fertilizers & fertilizers as and when required. The technical knowhow like, crop spacing, weed management, earthing up and plant protection measures and post-harvest management of maize and groundnut including processing for development of animal feed were demonstrated to target farmers through demonstration of small maize grinder machines through involving KVK Longleng, Peren and Wokha.
1.4. Impact of technology: Farmers grown Maize and Groundnut in strip cropping and intercropping Jhum / upland condition in Longleng (10 ha by 30 nos of farmers), Wokha (10 ha by 35 nos of farmers) and in Peren (30 ha by 75 nos of farmers). The performance of the crops was wonderful across the all locations as compare to traditional jhum / traditional practices (mixed cropping). The farmers were very happy with the groundnut crop as they were growing groundnut for the first time in their locations. Sole groundnut with improved management practices recorded maximum net return (Rs. 58500/- per ha) and crop profitability (Rs.487.5 /ha/day). Introduction of improved maize varieties with scientific management practices significantly improved maize productivity (2.9 t/ha) as compare to traditional cultivation practices (1.6 t/ha). The farmers were very happy as they could harvest more quantity of maize as well as groundnut from same piece of land and meet feed requirement of pigs and poultry through scientific cultivation of maize, groundnut and maize grinder machines. The farmers could save their money @ Rs. 37/-per of feed for pig and poultry.
1.5. Technology dissemination: A team scientists from ICAR RC for NEH Regions, Nagaland centre and Subject Matter Specialist from KVK, Peren, Wokha and Longleng visited the farmers field and organized training and demonstrations and field day at different crop growth stages in the respective districts covering 200 no of farmers in each districts.
1.6. Benefits to the farmers: Finally we found that the improved varieties with crop management practices resulted in 81.25% higher yield for maize and introduction of groundnut maximum net return (Rs. 58500/- per ha). Now the beneficiaries are growing maize and groundnut with the improved management practices under the supervision of scientific staff ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, Nagaland Centre, Medziphema and KVKs becomes a role model for the local farmers in their respective districts.
1.7. Limitation of the technology, if any: NIL