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Understanding the concept of Vulnerability and Risk in Hazard area: Thoughts from an Individualand Policy Perspective

Hinotoli V Sema
Ph. D candidate, Centre for Geoinformatics,
Jamsetji Tata School for Disaster Studies,


This article is an explorative review, observedwhile transcribing the data amid field work. A little real depiction between vulnerability-based and risk-based approaches to deal with considering extreme events, for instance, landslides, seismic tremor and fire events from those of an individual and policy’s perspectives.”Vulnerability” is used to define inherent qualities of a framework that make the potential for harmare free of the probabilistic riskof a specific hazard or extreme events. This article is to consider independently vulnerability and risk and the ramifications of such a refinement for contemplating the arrangement and governmental issues of “risk management”. I trust that the refinement of vulnerability from risk conveys with it an arrangement of recommendations and implications for individual and policies for managing hazard and risk. How approximately we investigate the refinement, examination and open deliberation.


Risk and Prediction contradiction
Risk-based approaches to deal with hazard events are centered on obtaining precise probabilistic information about the events itself. Probabilistic risk appraisal is the process of deciding the probabilities of thespecificevent also termed as a prediction.An actuarially stable riskmanagement practice is critical,however,climate differs on change over a period of time.Further, while specialists can positively give modern and thorough appraisals of instability encompassing risk evaluations, theabsence of involvement with numerous phenomena and results implies that understanding the vulnerability of the vulnerability assessments is inconceivable.


All decisions incorporate some informal evaluation of probabilities. Outside chance that one resides onlandslide susceptible areas it would likely be irrational to dedicate massive assets. Subsequently, vulnerabilitymanagement is certainly predisposed by some sense of what is sensible and what is definitely not. Sensible in a term that it isnot onlyinformed by using advanced quantitative predictions about aparticular risk but, additionally also it might be informed by past evidence, by general logical knowledge (for instance, alandslide occurs in hilly areas), by judgment procured through individual experience, or different means. Per se, an individual may have an alternate viewon the statement. The suggestions of relinquishing her/his house is truly absurd, where the policy and decision makers in view of the probabilityassume or enact laws to evacuate theprone regions as in some cases,vulnerability management does not rely upon exact prescient measurement of particular future events or classes of events. There are various occurrences where traditional practices and knowledge additionally named as community-based risk reduction are accepted to the best-fitted model from the different given logical methodologies.The community of any affected areas needs to befully aware and engaged in the mapping process,not just as providers of the information, but as active participants in the development of maps though the participants at this level will vary locally. In some cases, there will be already formal community groups able to mobilize the rest of the community; in others, policy makers should take a much more active role in establishing suitable frameworks and methodologies to facilitate community engagement.At the heart of the issue of vulnerability lies the strain between individual activity and community outcome. Urban migrations and urbanization are among the most prominent statistic patterns of modernizing social orders in any parts of the world. People are moving from rural settings to urban space and urban areas, for the most part, looking for better education, monetary open door, or perhaps scenery, or even cultural opportunity. By moving to the urban spaces, one is adding to one’s individual vulnerability to extraordinary events in an incrementally small ways.


Risk events outline these issues all the more poignantly. After any hazard events itself was phenomenal, this is to state that risk couldn’t have been precisely evaluated in advance. However, the way that many individuals made their living, and their homes, on these hilly regions could be deciphered as prima facie evidence of vulnerability to disaster, from epidemic diseases to the debris flow that actually did occur. The character of an extreme events is determined not just by some arrangement of attributes innate in the natural phenomena (e.g., earthquake, cloud bursts, floods), but by the interaction of those attributes with different issues, for example, marginalised communities dwelling on immature exposed high mountain or hills with extreme weather conditions or geo-environmental settings . Decision making might focus as effectively around distinguishing and describing vulnerabilities as on recognizing and concentrating on risk. For landslidemanagement policy, an evacuation does nothing to change the danger of landslide or be it earthquakes;however, it reduces vulnerability (e.g., better building practices) to events effects to around zero. Notwithstanding complicated instability about risk, such an analytics may rather rely on upon inventive ways to deal with vulnerability management, (for example, by stimulating a specific structure or upgrading and enhancing building/encompasses resilience in areas of contrasting vulnerability).


Vulnerability reduction
is a human rights issue
Much more essential than the economic approach of reasoning is the human one, exemplified by the pictures of human sufferings and social disturbances that multiply in the quick aftermath of any type of catastrophe. Basic fundamental human needs for instances water, food, shelter, and security, are abruptly relinquished; lives are lost; families are sundered. Surely, emphasis on economic parts of disasters can seem insensitive to the genuine human issues in disaster management. In a human rights setting, issues of cost/benefits and level headed discussions over vulnerability lose their centrality, as well as they are rendered inappropriate. Assurance and enforcement of human rights are a core responsibility of the state.


Let’s consider the state of differently abled people whose lives are still invisible in our own state of Nagaland. There are no Disabilities friendly setting, no fitting with wheelchair access devices in public buses, taxi service for individuals with disabilities who did not have their own means of transportation and more importantly theabsence of ramp in offices, churches and public spaces.  The point is that people with disabilities are amongst the most vulnerable people during any disasters and they do deserve, as humans and citizens, to be fully integrated into our society, not marginalized from it.  This means that they need the same access to resources that non-disabled people enjoy. Are we not denying them of their basic fundamental rights? Theirown family does not want to disclose the case of disabilities(different types) because mostly they fear the cause of any form of disabilities is basically a curse which cannot be exposed or cured so close them inside the house. Of course, there are cases where at least 10% (field survey) of them are doing well being supported by family members. One narrative from the mother whose daughter is suffering from mental illness feels that prayer is the only solution and sooner or later she will get better. So, the question of sending her to aspecialschool or any training institute is something she does not encourage, seeking of mental help is way out of question. Is she safe within the house or does she have any awareness of hervulnerability to extreme events?


Finally, the question lies, is it politically difficult to legitimize vulnerability reduction on monetary grounds?The past contentions recommend that risk can be reduced by reducing vulnerability. Yet, this approach frequently crosses paths with policy, politics, and economics. Without understanding the concept and delineating the different parameters of vulnerability, it will be very difficult for themanagement of risk assessment of any hazard area.


However, introducing a new vulnerability management process can also be challenging. Risk reduction requires in advance expenses and reeks of ponderous government interventions; it is a tough political option that offers no benefits to the insurance industry. The significances of policy termsare that they interact with areas that demand clear policy frameworks within which the more specialized or technical parts of mitigation measure, conveyance can be undertaken but, the absence of rationality in these affected areas can culminate to inefficiency, delay postponement, and failure to align stakeholder predictions.In conclusion, the analysis of where to implement measures is supposed to be a driving force to raise the awareness of the people at risk and of the decision/policymakers for the need to invest in prevention. Funders and policy makers can seek to ensure that policies and guidelines are set up to fit disaster risk reduction disbursement emerging from different sources within a community.

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