Following are some of the major events to have occurred on August 12:

1922 - Arthur Griffith, first president of the Irish Republic and a founder of Sinn Fein, died.

1955 - German novelist Thomas Mann died; best known for "Death in Venice" and "The Magic Mountain".

1964 - Ian Fleming, English author and creator of the spy character James Bond, died.

1982 - U.S. actor Henry Fonda died aged 77. He appeared in "Young Mr Lincoln", "Mister Roberts" and "12 Angry Men" and received a belated Oscar for his last film, "On Golden Pond".

1998 - A Titan 4A rocket carrying a secret U.S. spy satellite exploded just after lift-off at Cape Canaveral.

2000 - The Russian navy's nuclear submarine Kursk sank in the Barents Sea after an explosion with the loss of all 118 crew.

2000 - The first Iraqi train to Syria in 19 years arrived in the northern city of Aleppo, resuming rail service after two decades of tension.

2003 - Argentina's lower house of Congress annulled amnesties for military officers who tortured and murdered leftists during the 1976-1983 "Dirty War".

2004 - Julia Child, grande dame of U.S. television cooking shows and international culinary star, died aged 91.

2005 - Sri Lanka's Foreign Minister Lakshman Kadirgamar was shot dead in an attack blamed by the government on the rebel Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam.

2005 – Yelena Isinbayeva sets new world record in women’s pole vault final at world athletics championships.

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