Following are some of the major events to have occurred on July 01

0069: Vespasian, a Roman army leader, is hailed as a Roman emperor by the Egyptian legions.


1543: England and Scotland sign the Peace of Greenwich.


1596: An English fleet under the Earl of Essex, Lord Howard of Effingham and Francis Vere capture and sack Cadiz, Spain.


1690: Led by Marshall Luxembourg, the French defeat the forces of the Grand Alliance at Fleurus in the Netherlands.


1777: British troops depart from their base at the Bouquet River to head toward Ticonderoga, New York.


1798: Napoleon Bonaparte takes Alexandria, Egypt.


1838: Charles Darwin presents a paper on his theory of evolution to the Linnean Society in London.


1862: Union artillery stops a Confederate attack at Malvern Hill, Virginia.


1863: In the first day's fighting at Gettysburg, Federal forces retreat through the town and dig in at Cemetery Ridge and Cemetery Hill.


1867: Canada, by the terms of the British North America Act, becomes an independent dominion.


1876: Montenegro declares war on the Turks.


1898: American troops take San Juan Hill and El Caney, Cuba, from the Spaniards.


1916: The Battle of the Somme begins. Approximately 30,000 men are killed on the first day, two-thirds of them British.


1942: Axis troops capture Sevastopol, Crimea, in the Soviet Union.


1945: The New York State Commission Against Discrimination is established--the first such agency in the United States.


1950: American ground troops arrive in South Korea to halt the advancing North Korean army.


1961: British troops land in Kuwait to aid against Iraqi threats.


1963: The U.S. postmaster introduces the ZIP code.


1966: The U.S. Marines launch Operation Holt in an attempt to finish off a Vietcong battalion in Thua Thien Province in Vietnam.